主题: 娃哈哈是如何发家的?| 华尔街日报


Zong Qinghou, Soft-Drink Magnate Who Bested Coke and Pepsi in China, Dies
magnate  [ˈmægnət] 指「大亨,巨头」(a rich and powerful person in industry or business)。the soft-drink magnate 便指「饮料大亨」。标题为节省版面,省略了冠词the。
外刊中常出现的表示「巨头」的词还有 giant, tycoon等等。
best 这里为动词,指「击败,超过」,相当于defeat sb。这里best Coke and Pepsi 便指「打败可口可乐与百事可乐」。
take on sb 指「与...较量,接受...挑战」(If you take someone on, you fight them or compete against them, especially when they are bigger or more powerful than you are.),这个词一般指与比自己实力比较强的对手较量。

# 01
Like many from China’s first generation of private entrepreneurs, Zong grew up desperately poor. His hometown of Hangzhou later gained an image for technology, after Jack Ma based Alibaba Group Holding there, but business was more freewheeling in 1987 when Zong was selling drinks and ice cream for pennies from a three-wheeled vehicle.

private entrepreneurs 指「民营企业家」。
sb grew up desperately poor. 便指「某人出身贫寒」。
desperately 这里是个程度副词,指「非常,极其」,相当于extremely。注意desperately 其后一般跟负面的形容词。
public image 公众形象
base 为动词,指「把总部设在…,把办公地点设在…」。
地点-based 便指「总部设在…的」,也是一个非常实用的表达。比如:a Shanghai-based company 一家总部设在上海的公司。
freewheel 由free(自由)和wheel(轮胎)构成,本来是指骑车或开车下坡时「滑行」。
freewheeling为形容词,喻指「随心所欲的,自由放纵的」(not concerned about rules or the possible results of what you do),非常有画面感的一个词,有一种野蛮生长的感觉。
And Shen-zhen’s special economic zone did well because it operated as a freewheeling hub.

回复: 娃哈哈是如何发家的?| 华尔街日报

# 02
He created Wahaha in 1989 after developing a “children’s tonic” drink that he pitched as a nutritious supplement for students who weren’t getting enough to eat.

When he tried to use idled capacity in a government-owned canning company to make the popular drink, workers revolted for fear a private businessman would toss them out.

create sth 这里指「创办」。我们也可以说found sth。「创始人」就叫作founder。
pitch作动词,指「推销,争取...的支持」。比如你有一个新想法,想要说服老板,就可以做个PPT,pitch your new idea to your boss。
短语 pitch sth as sth 便指「把...作为...进行推销」
pitch [pɪtʃ] 也可作名词,指「宣传,广告」,make a pitch / pitches 指「宣传,营销」。
a nutritious supplement指「营养补充」。
nutritious 为形容词,指「有营养的,营养价值高的」,来自于名词nutrition(营养)。
idled为形容词,指「不工作的,闲置的」(not working or producing anything)。
Freshippo, Alibaba’s e-grocer, has engaged 2,000 staff from 30 idled restaurant chains.阿里巴巴的线上超市盒马鲜生已从30 间停业的连锁餐厅雇佣了 2000 名员工。
常见的搭配时:to lie/stand/sit / remain idle 闲置着
eg;The machines were lying idle.
idle 还有「漫无目的的」的意思。常和gossip搭配,idle gossip 指「无聊的八卦」。
revolt [rɪˈvəʊlt] 为动词,指「反抗,反叛」(to take violent action against the people in power)。
for fear (that) … / for fear of sth指「唯恐,生怕」(because you are worried that you will make something happen)。
eg;Some Americans are reluctant to take a long holiday for fear that their employer will find they can easily manage without them.一些美国人并不愿意休⻓假,因为担心他们的雇主会发现离了他们公司照样能好好运转。
sb is reluctant to do sth for fear that... / for fear of sth. 某人因为害怕...,而不愿意 做...。
eg;They faced a lot of pressure to be hands-on mothers, had little support from their husbands and were reluctant to ask for reduced schedules for fear of not seeming committed to their jobs.
Many people with depression are reluctant to seek treatment for fear of being discriminated against.
toss 为动词,指「扔」这个动作。
toss sb out 把某人扔出去,指「赶走,撵走某人」。
I mean, it could be time we tossed you out on street.

回复: 娃哈哈是如何发家的?| 华尔街日报

# 03
“The media also said we were capitalists,” Zong told the BBC in 2011. “It was a huge negative campaign.”

His bold move was to buy the 2,000-employee facility. Wahaha hit just as China’s economy was generating cash income for individuals who during its Communist era had goods allocated to them by the government.

Zong capitalized on the trend by saturating media so Wahaha became better known than Coke to large segments of the population, and made his drinks available even deep in the countryside with aggressive distribution and low pricing.

bold 为形容词,指「大胆的,果敢的」(not afraid of taking risks and making difficult decisions)。

move 这里为可数名词,指「行动,举措」(something that you decide to do in order to achieve something)。

just as… 指「恰逢...,正当...」。
eg;It's a shame you're leaving just as we started dating.

allocate [ˈæləkeɪt]为动词,指「分配,拨给」(to give something to someone as their share of a total amount, for them to use in a particular way)。
In Shanghai, the local government mandated that local state-owned companies allocate at least half of new positions to college graduates this year.在上海,当地政府规定,市属和区属国有企业要在年度招聘计划中,安排不低于50%的就业岗位面向上海市高校毕业生定向招聘。

have sth done 指「让...被...」。
比如: She had all her jewellery stolen.她所有的首饰都被偷了。
文中 had goods allocated to them by the government 便指「让商品被政府分发给他们」。

capitalize on /upon sth 指「充分利用…」(to gain a further advantage for yourself from a situation)。
eg;Capitalize on press interest.利用新闻界的兴趣。
近义表达还有take advantage of sth, make the most of sth 等等。

saturate [ˈsætjʊreɪt] 作动词时,本来是「浸透,使...湿透」的意思。
引申出「使...充满,使...饱和」的意思(to fill a thing or place completely so that no more can be added)。
saturate media 渗透媒体,也就是在媒体上大量投放广告的意思。

短语be saturated with指「充满...,充斥着...」。
Our culture is saturated with television and advertising.
The losses to companies, many already saturated with debt, risk triggering a financial crisis of cataclysmic proportions.
这里be saturated with debt 便是「充满债务,负债累累」的意思。

segment [ˈseg.mənt] 为可数名词,指「部分」。large segments of the population 便指「人口中的很大部分,众多人口」。

available 为形容词,指「可获得」。make sth available (to sb) 便指「让...能够获得...」。

文中made his drinks available even deep in the countryside 即「让他的饮料在农村偏远地区也买得到」。
我们在“人人影视”被判刑!《经济学人》如何报道?还讲过一个近义词:make sth accessible to sb 也是「让...能获得...」,大家顺便复习一下。

pricing 这里为不可数名词,指「定价」。low pricing即「低廉的定价」。

deep 这里是副词,指「在深处,至深处」,后面多跟副词或介词。
deep in the countryside 便指「深入农村偏远地区」。再举两个例子,大家熟悉一下deep的这个用法:
He stood with his hands deep in his pockets.
He gazed deep into her eyes.
They sat and talked deep into the night.他们坐着谈话,一直谈到深夜。

with sth 这里是「用」的意思。
怎么made his drinks available even deep in the countryside呢?作者用with引出方式:with aggressive distribution and low pricing 通过积极的分销和低廉的价格。

aggressive 很多同学一看到这个词,容易产生负面的印象。但在实际使用中,aggressive 多指正面的「有进取心的,有冲劲的,大刀阔斧」的意思,这里也是如此。

distribution 来自于动词distribute,指「分销,经销」。

回复: 娃哈哈是如何发家的?| 华尔街日报

# 04
Today, Wahaha is a sprawling enterprise covering nearly every Chinese province. The company’s 30,000 employees and more than 80 plants annually produce 30 billion bottles of milk, tea, juice, water and yogurt.

sprawl 作动词,是「蔓延,扩张」的意思。sprawling 为形容词,形容「蔓延的,巨大的」,给人一种又大又乱的感觉。
文中 a sprawling enterprise 便指「规模庞大的企业」。
They erected the barbecue festival on the site of a sprawling seafood market, the only place big enough to host 10,000 people.

enterprise 为可数名词,指「公司,企业」。
国企便叫作:state-owned enterprises,简称SOE。

回复: 娃哈哈是如何发家的?| 华尔街日报